Hoy’s 5&10: Now and Then

first_imgHow Business Changed Over TimeA lot has changed since Hoy’s 5&10 first opened its doors in 1936. From how money is processed and products are priced to the employee dress code and featured merchandise, Hoy’s has changed with the times. But one thing has remained the same. Hoy’s 5&10 has been the fun place to shop for  over 75 years.Owner David Hoy and longtime employees reminisced over the company’s history, comparing ‘then’ with ‘now.’The Shopping ‘Climate’Then: Hoy’s 5&10 opened during the Great Depression. People did not have a lot of money. But they still needed supplies. At the time, there were no chain stores, large shopping centers or malls. The whole idea behind the 5&10 was to be able to buy something for less. Hoy’s had buying power and so could offer lower prices. That brought in customers.Now: Today, there are shopping malls, deep discount chain stores, dollar stores and online retailers. Hoy’s has established its own niche. It has become the ‘mom and pop’ store in the beach communities that it serves. Each store is customized to its clientele, which means Hoy’s offers Stone Harbor souvenirs in Stone Harbor and Ocean City souvenirs in Ocean City. The store also offers everything you need to stock up on when you’re in town visiting from everything for the beach, to kitchen supplies, thread for mending and holiday  themed decorations. The store is also a draw for kids and teens, with toys, jewelry and clothes with them in mind—at Hoy’s signature low prices.Price TagsThen: Prices were handwritten on tags and placed on each item.Now: For the last four years, Hoy’s has bar coded its inventory. But for the convenience of customers, store employees still hand stamp prices on each item.At the Cash RegisterThen: There were no such things as debit or credit cards, at first. Everything was a cash sale. The cash register also was not electric. Neither was the adding machine. You pushed in the number and pulled the lever. You counted the change into a customer’s hand. By the 1980’s, credit cards were more prevalent. Hoy’s used to receive thick books in the mail that listed bad credit cards. Employees would have to check the card number against the numbers in the book to make sure the card was good.Now: Cash registers are not only electronic, they are computerized. The register automatically tells you the change to give. While cash sales still predominate, plenty of customers also rely on debit and credit cards. Countertop devices allow employees to instantly draw payment from a card.Has Anything Stayed the Same?The family owning Hoy’s 5&10 has remained the same over several generations now. Bernard Joseph Hoy founded the store, and managed the chain until the mid-1960’s.  The business was then passed to his son, William R. Hoy, and his nephew, Bernard Joseph Hoy, Jr.Today, the third generation is at the helm: David Hoy, co-owner with siblings Susan Hoy, Elizabeth Furcolo and Georgene Luttmann. (David is the only sibling currently active in the daily operations of the business.)Hoy’s 5&10 is located at 34th Street and West Avenue in Ocean City, at 732 Asbury Avenue in Ocean City, at 219 96th Street in Stone Harbor and at 2800 Dune Drive in Avalon, N.J.   All stores are open daily and you can visit Hoy’s online at www.hoys510.com  or on Facebook and Instagram.   Hoy’s is the fun place to shop!last_img read more

Theorist calculates the incalculable siren song of merging black holes

first_img R. HURT/CALTECH-JPL Just a month into a renewed observing campaign with a trio of detectors, physicists today announced they have spotted more gravitational waves—fleeting ripples in space set off when two massive objects such as black holes spiral into each other. The collaboration has now bagged 13 merging black hole pairs, as well as two pairs of neutron stars. But even as detections accumulate, one theorist has made an advance that could change how the team analyzes the signals and make it easier to test Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity, general relativity.To interpret their signals gravitational wave hunters compare them to computer simulations. Now, Sean McWilliams, a theoretical astrophysicist at West Virginia University in Morgantown, has calculated an exact mathematical formula for the signal, or waveform, produced by two merging black holes.“It’s a big step forward,” says Neil Cornish, a gravitational wave astronomer at Montana State University in Bozeman who was not involved in the work. “It’s going to allow for more accurate waveforms for doing analysis. But it also gives us more insight into what’s going on” in a black hole merger. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country By Adrian ChoMay. 2, 2019 , 3:10 PM Math may have caught up with the swirling mergers of black holes like the one in this simulation. Theorist calculates the incalculable siren song of merging black holes Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) In 1916, Einstein predicted that as two stars orbit each other they’d radiate gravitational waves, although he figured the waves would be too feeble to detect. In 2015, physicists with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) spotted a burst of waves from two black holes that merged 1.3 billion light-years away, using their huge optical instruments in Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana. The Virgo detector near Pisa, Italy, joined the hunt in August 2017, enabling the collaboration to triangulate to the sources of the events on the sky.As two black holes spiral ever closer, they emit ripples in space that speed up. The waves’ intensity peaks as the two objects collide, and then peter out as the final, merged black hole undulates and settles down. To decipher the signal and determine the black holes’ masses and other parameters, scientists compare it to a catalog of simulated signals, a tack they have taken because of the complexity of the problem.According to general relativity, gravity arises when mass and energy warp spacetime. And a black hole is the ultraintense gravitational field left behind when a massive star collapses to an infinitesimal point. So when two black holes swirl together, warping begets warping and renders the mathematics “nonlinear” and intractable.Or so many scientists assumed. McWilliams says he has found a way to calculate the signal mathematically after all, as he reports in a paper in press at Physical Review Letters. The calculation involves special distances from the center of the black hole. Famously, nothing can escape a black hole if it draws closer than a characteristic distance called the event horizon. At a distance about 1.5 times that of the event horizon, the black hole’s gravity will bend passing light into a circular orbit, defining the “light ring.” A distance roughly three times that of the event horizon marks the limit for a massive object to maintain a circular orbit and not spiral in, a threshold called the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO).Previous attempts to calculate the exact waveform from a black hole merger relied on a standard mathematical transformation, turning the problem of two orbiting black holes into one of a single body spiraling in a funnel-shaped energy landscape. But within the ISCO, the body stops spiraling, forcing researchers to correct its path with numerical simulations. McWilliams realized he could avoid that problem by skipping to the final merged black hole. He then used general relativity to calculate how a tiny test mass spirals into and perturbs the final black hole, enabling him to calculate the radiated signal from the ISCO inward.Once the test particle reaches the light ring, tracing its trajectory becomes mathematically untenable. But McWilliams says the physics there can be ignored for a simple reason: All the churning of spacetime within the light ring cannot escape to influence the spreading gravitational waves. Essentially, the black hole itself slurps up all the nasty nonlinearities. McWilliams provides a pair of formulas that neatly match the simulations. “I’ll be honest,” he says, “I was rather floored how well it agrees with the results of numerical relativity.”Those formulas could prove valuable in tests of general relativity, McWilliams says, especially as black holes are objects made of pure gravitational energy, with no messy matter to get in the way. LIGO’s and Virgo’s observations have already confirmed general relativity’s accuracy to an unprecedented level, but researchers should be able to push further as they hone their instruments’ sensitivity. They’ll need more precise predictions of the waveforms from general relativity, McWilliams says, and the exact formulas should be more accurate than the numerical simulations.Lionel London, a gravitational wave theorist and LIGO team member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, isn’t so sure. McWilliams still has to rely on simulations to model the spiraling outside the ISCO, he notes, and that part of the signal is key to determining the masses of the initial black holes. The calculations also depend on certain simplifying assumptions, but do not provide estimates of the uncertainties carried with them, he says. The formulas are more of an “ansatz”—an educated guess at how the signal should look—than an exact solution to the problem, London says.Cornish agrees it’s too early to replace numerical relativity. Still, he says, the formulas will be useful and should spur physicists to explain why black hole mergers seem to be simpler than they had anticipated. “There’s more to be learned.”In the meantime, LIGO and Virgo researchers will have no shortage of signals. During the first month of their third observing run, they have detected five new candidate events, including three black hole mergers, a second neutron star merger, and a possible black hole-neutron star merger spotted last week. The mixed merger would be another gem for scientists, as they lack even good estimates of how often such things should occur. “Because it’s such an interesting astrophysical object, it’s generating a lot of excitement, which I think it deserves,” says Jessica McIver, a physicist and LIGO team member from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Still, the tantalizing signal is relatively weak. Researchers estimate that random noise should produce a similar spurious signal about once every 20 months, and there’s a 14% chance that it originated in terrestrial vibrations. “If you ask me, ‘Would you bet a coffee, your car, or your house on this?’ I would say, ‘I’d bet your car,’” says Salvatore Vitale, a physicist and LIGO member from MIT. To nail the case for the supposed mixed merger, astronomers would likely have to spot light and electromagnetic waves from it. Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab Two relatively simple formulas describe the peak and reverberation of gravitational wave signals like the first ones the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory saw.last_img read more